The rise of mass media has led to changes in sports coverage. The heightened “spectacularization” of sporting events and individual athletes is intended to attract viewers who are seeking sensation and stimulation. The evolution of sports has been closely related to the growth and development of mass media, and this relationship continues today. As the media and sports industry compete, the treatment of sports is changing in a way that would be inconceivable in the past.

The aesthetic element of sport is still very much alive in some sports, but the emphasis has shifted from aesthetics to the pursuit of quantifiable achievement. The transition from Renaissance sports to modern sports is reflected in the word “measure.” Before, measure connoted a sense of balance and proportion. But after the invention of the ruler, the word was used to denote a numerical measurement.

In the late 17th century, in England, the beginnings of modern sports began to take shape. In this period, the concept of a sports record was first coined. Puritans pushed traditional pastimes underground, but organized games were born. The renowned Marylebone Cricket Club (1787) was one of the first to organize games. The club was instrumental in developing modern cricket and rationalized competition.

In the 20th century, sports became increasingly globalized. Many countries grew more economically prosperous and had better training facilities. As a result, athletes from poorer countries left their home countries to compete in sports in more powerful nations. The higher-powered countries offered better facilities, stiffer competition, and bigger financial rewards. This phenomenon is known as a “brawn drain.” In the 21st century, non-core countries have used sports festivals to strengthen their identities and prestige.